Difference between assesed and market value. 

Market value:

It is that value of the property (movable or immovable) for which the buyers are willing to pay a certain amount of money.

Whereas,

Assessed value :

It is that value of the property (movable or immovable) which has been assessed by a valuer.

Parameters to determine market value.

1. The entire economy of that particular country.

2. Every economic sector is linked to everyother sector.

Parameters to determine assessed value.

1. The current condition of the property (movable or immovable).

2. The location where it is situated.

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What does a bank guarantee mean.

An undertaking given by the bank on behalf of one party to pay for the goods and/or services to the other party in the contract of sale in the event of failure to pay for by one party is known as bank guarantee.

Example :

1. Letter of Credit.

How to build a portfolio for regular income after retirement.

According to me everyone’s portfolio should be diverse from the very beginning to be financially independent. Youth should prefer SIP’s and pension fund schemes. Real estate investments should be the later priority, because the estimated monthly installment on the housing loan is so high that it makes every other financial investment difficult to achieve. 

Should you be getting fixed or adjustable rate for mortgage.

In a closed economy (communism), where the property prices generally show a rising trend the mortgage rate should be high. Whereas in the open economy (capitalism) where the property prices generally show a variable trend (rise as well as fall) because of the frequent trade cycles, mortgage rate should be adjustable. To maintain the economic stability of the respective types of countries.

Long term investors getting bonus shares might pay higher LTCG, if sold.

As per the new law, investors getting bonus shares might end up paying a higher long term capital gains tax (LTCG), if they sell it, because the cost of acquisition of such shares would be considered as nill. Its may be because such shares (bonus shares) are alloted to the shareholders for no cost. So if such shares are sold, they are ought to be taxed at a higher rate. 

International Tax planning.

Few countries are tax haven ex. Singapore, United States etc. Where taxation on corporations is equivalent to negligible. Investing in such countries is the easiest because of minimal red tape and a healthy business atmosphere. Such countries are capitalistic ie. They encourage investments and capital formation. 

So corporations should consider such tax haven countries for registration purpose. Thus corporations would save in corporate tax. 

If the registered office (RO) is located in that same tax haven country then the tax payable on the business activity may be as per the business income tax of that particular tax haven country.

If the RO is located in some other country then the tax payable on the business activity may be as per the business income tax of that other country.